Enabling Neural Networks Hardware Abstraction Layer in Celadon

This tutorial explains neural networks usage in project Celadon.

Neural networks hardware abstraction layer overview

Android provides a neural networks API (NN API) for running computationally intensive operations for machine learning on Android devices:

https://developer.android.com/ndk/guides/neuralnetworks

../_images/cs002-f1-system-arch-Android-neural-networks.png

Figure 1: System architecture for Android Neural Networks API (Source: https://developer.android.com/ndk/guides/neuralnetworks#runtime)

Celadon’s neural networks hardware abstraction layer (NN HAL) is the vendor implementation of the NN API driver interface (https://source.android.com/devices/neural-networks) specified by the HAL definition files hardware/interfaces/neuralnetworks.

This implementation is achieved using the OpenVINO™ Toolkit (2021.4) components, which provide optimized solutions for AI inference on Intel hardware.

NN HAL implementation details

../_images/cs002-f2-arch-for-celadon-nn-hal.png

Figure 2: Architecture for Celadon NN-HAL Implementation

The two main steps for AI inferencing using NN API are compilation/translation and execution/inference.

Model compilation/translation

At model compilation time, the NN API framework sends the model to NN HAL using IDevice::getSupportedOperations*. NN HAL returns an array of booleans indicating which operations of the model are supported. Based on the response, the framework instructs NN HAL to prepare to execute a subset of the model by calling IDevice::prepareModel*, which should return an IPreparedModel handle.

To use OpenVINO Toolkit’s InferenceEngine, we need a model in IR format:

https://docs.openvino.ai/2021.4/openvino_docs_MO_DG_IR_and_opsets.html#intermediate-representation-used-in-openvino

The NgraphNetworkCreator along with other sub-components within nn-hal/ngraph_creator, implements ngraph conversion of each NN API operation, and finally generates an ngraph::Function out of the NN API model: https://docs.openvino.ai/2021.4/openvino_docs_nGraph_DG_DevGuide.html

This ngraph::Function is further used to create an InferenceEngine::CNNNetwork object, which can be loaded to the corresponding plugin for inference.

Execution/Inference

During execution, the NN API framework calls one of IPreparedModel::execute* APIs to NN HAL with a Request parameter, which lists the input and output operands used for the execution. NN HAL converts the input and output operands into formats expected by InferenceEngine and then uses one of the plugins to do the inference. Currently, we use the oneDNN plugin which helps improve performance on Intel CPUs:

https://oneapi-src.github.io/oneDNN/

Enable and build NN HAL

To enable NN HAL and its dependencies in the Android 12 build, perform the following steps:

  1. Initialize the Android 12 repo using:

    repo init -u https://github.com/projectceladon/manifest -b celadon/s/mr0/stable
    
  2. Apply the following patch to the repo (.repo/manifests/) for including the NN HAL dependencies: https://patch-diff.githubusercontent.com/raw/projectceladon/manifest/pull/295.patch

  3. Sync the Android12 source using:

    repo sync -c
    
  4. Apply the following patch to vendor/intel/utils to specify android build rules for the dependencies: https://github.com/projectceladon/vendor-intel-utils/pull/1617.patch

  5. Enable neuralnetworks at mixins(device/intel/project-celadon/caas/mixins.spec): | “neuralnetworks: true”

  6. Run the following to update the mixin changes:

    $./device/intel/mixins/mixin-update
    

Execute a sample usecase

Sync the tflite object_detection example below and build it using Android Studio. The instructions are available in this link .

Since the NN API switch’s visibility is disabled in this version’s layout, the following line has to be removed from res/layout/tfe_od_layout_bottom_sheet.xml:

<!-- *TODO(b/112541284): Unhide when new NNAPI delegate is used.* -->
<LinearLayout
android:layout\_width="match\_parent"
android:layout\_height="wrap\_content"
android:orientation="horizontal"
[STRIKEOUT:android:visibility="gone"]>

Notice the improvement in the inference time in the sample execution below:

../_images/cs002-f3-inference-without-nn-api.png

Figure 3: Inference without NN API

../_images/cs002-f4-inference-using-nn-api.png

Figure 4: Inference using NN API

Note

The sample app source code does have some minor issues such as:

  • The TFLITE-NNAPI toggle button works only the first time after
    opening app
  • Only portrait mode is supported.